a ->b ==> TS(a) < TS(b) The reverse does not hold.
Use vector to store the lock with every cores. Follows the reverse of the property.
To prove that random timeouts can avoid live locking.
- Lemma 1: Disjoint schedules are commutative
- Lemma 2: There exists an initial configuration that is bivalent
- Lemma 3: Starting from a bivalent config., there is always another bivalent config. that is reachable
- Theorem (Impossibility of Consensus): There is always a run of events in an asynchronous distributed system such that the group of processes never reach consensus (i.e., stays bivalent all the time)
- RPC = Remote Procedure Call
- Proposed by Birrell and Nelson in 1984
- Important abstraction for processes to call functions in other processes
- Allows code reuse
- Implemented and used in most distributed systems, including cloud computing systems
- Counterpart in Object-based settings is called RMI (Remote Method Invocation)
- What’s the No. 1 design choice for RPC?
Local Procedure Call (LPC)
The call from one function to another function within the same process
- Uses stack to pass arguments and return values
- Accesses objects via pointers(e.g., C) or by reference(e.g., Java)
LPC has exactly-once semantics
Remote Procedure Call
Call from one function to another function, where caller and callee function reside in different processes
- Function call crosses a process boundary
- Accesses procedures via global references(e.g., Procedure address = IP + port + procedure number)
- Cannot use pointers across processes since a reference address in process P1 may point to a different object in another process P2(We need serialization)
Similarly, RMI (Remote Method Invocation) in Object-based settings
- Under failures, hard to guarantee exactly-once semantics
- Function may not be executed if
- Request (call) message is dropped
- Reply (return) message is dropped
- Called process fails before executing called function
- Called process fails after executing called function
- Hard for the caller to distinguish these cases
- Function may be executed multiple times if
- Request (call) message is duplicated
- Idempotent operations are those that can be repeated multiple times, without any side effects
- Idempotent operations can be used with at-least-once semantics
- client stub: has same function signature as
- communication module: Forwards requests and replies to appropriate hosts
- dispatcher: Selects which server stub to forward a request to
- server stub: calls
callee(), allows it to return a value
- Atomicity: "all or nothing"
- Consistency: "it looks correct to me"
- Isolation: "as if alone"
- Durability: "survive failures"
Fault in the Two-phase Commit
- What if the database node crashes?
- What if the coordinator crashes?
- Coordinator writes its decision to disk
- When it recovers, read the decision from the disk and send it to replicas (or abort if no decision was made before the crash)
- If the coordinate crashes after preparation, but before broadcasting the decision, other nodes do not know how it has been decided.
- Replicas participating in the transaction cannot commit or abort after responding “ok” to the prepared request
- Algorithm is blocked until coordinator recovers
Fault Tolerance and Reliable Multicast
- easy-to-use software to enable Internet-scale file sharing
Data-intensive Computing: Massive
- Some Examples
- Google MapReduce
- Yahoo Hadoop/PIG
- Data parallel computing
- IBM Research System S
- InfosphereStream product
- Continuous Data stream processing
- Microsoft Dryad/ LINQ
- DAG processing
- SQL query support
- Google MapReduce
- Google Infra
- Distributed file systems: GFS
- Distributed storage: BigTable
- Job scheduler: the work queue
- Parallel computation: MapReduce
- Distributed lock server: chubby
- A user-specified
mapthe function processes a key/value pair to generate a set of intermediate key/value pairs.
- A user-specified
reducefunction merges all intermediate values associated with the same intermediate key.
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