When I was designing the simulator I compared serveral back up solutions. I will tell why they are not working. So the problem is how to give ld/st interface desired delay from the application perspective.

Hardware implementation

The original implementation of CXL.mem is they have a window inside the LLC, and if you access that image-20231026123952716

TMC Solution from Hiner and Yuanjiang

Physical unplug Solution

lsmem to turn off

PEMP dynamic region based Solution

DAMON Solution from Amazon's

My QEMU Solution

My CXLMemSim Solution